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DOI: 10.1016/j.homp.2017.01.002

# ‘Unconventional’ experiments in biology and medicine with optimized design based on quantum-like correlations

Subject Editor:

### Publication History

Received16 August 2016

received10 December 2016

accepted06 January 2017

Publication Date:

20 December 2017 (online)

In previous articles, a description of ‘unconventional’ experiments (e.g. in vitro or clinical studies based on high dilutions, ‘memory of water’ or homeopathy) using quantum-like probability was proposed. Because the mathematical formulations of quantum logic are frequently an obstacle for physicians and biologists, a modified modeling that rests on classical probability is described in the present article. This modeling is inspired from a relational interpretation of quantum physics that applies not only to microscopic objects, but also to macroscopic structures, including experimental devices and observers. In this framework, any outcome of an experiment is not an absolute property of the observed system as usually considered but is expressed relatively to an observer. A team of interacting observers is thus described from an external view point based on two principles: the outcomes of experiments are expressed relatively to each observer and the observers agree on outcomes when they interact with each other. If probability fluctuations are also taken into account, correlations between ‘expected’ and observed outcomes emerge. Moreover, quantum-like correlations are predicted in experiments with local blind design but not with centralized blind design. No assumption on ‘memory’ or other physical modification of water is necessary in the present description although such hypotheses cannot be formally discarded.

In conclusion, a simple modeling of ‘unconventional’ experiments based on classical probability is now available and its predictions can be tested. The underlying concepts are sufficiently intuitive to be spread into the homeopathy community and beyond. It is hoped that this modeling will encourage new studies with optimized designs for in vitro experiments and clinical trials.

^{a} The concomitant consideration of these two principles (independence of the outcomes relative to O and O′ and intersubjective agreement) implies that the ‘shared reality’ of O and O′ does not pre-exist to their interaction from the point of view of P. This is a characteristic of quantum measurements. In the language of quantum mechanics, the ‘state’ of O would be said ‘superposed’ before interaction (idem for O′); O and O′ would be said ‘entangled’ after interaction.

^{b} Note that for a number of observers N > 2, they interact anyway by pairs; this equation will be useful for N = 0.

^{c} This means that the probability to observe ‘↑’ is not null, even if this probability is very low.

^{d} We assume here that probability after fluctuation n + 1 is dependent on probability after fluctuation n; this will be justified in the section “Which experimental systems are appropriate for ‘unconventional’ experiments?”

^{e} The remote supervisor should not be confused with the uninvolved observer P who describes the experiment. Indeed, P has no interaction with the system and the team members and, from his point of view, labels and corresponding outcomes remain undefined.

^{f} Note that Rovelli's interpretation preserves the principle of locality; therefore, quantum correlations cannot be considered in this framework as ‘non local’.

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